Introducing TextTest and Acceptance Testing
What is Acceptance Testing?
Even within XP and Agile circles there can be some uncertainty about what is meant by Acceptance Testing and how it differs from unit testing. There can be a tendency to define it simply as coarser-grained testing with a larger part of the system exercised, in contrast to unit tests at the class or method level.
We use the following definition.
A test is an acceptance test only if a customer representative understands it.
In principle, a customer representative should write it also. The aim is to test that customer requirements have been fulfilled: if these have to be 'translated' by a developer, implemented and then handed back, there is an added danger that some misunderstanding creeps in during this process.
Expression formats for Acceptance Tests
Now, you might be lucky enough that your customer is perfectly comfortable reading and writing code in a generic programming language: but you probably won't be. A generic tool needs to assume minimal technical skills on the part of customer representatives: after all, if they're happy programming, why would they hire you?
It is to some extent possible to “hide” the fact that a programming language is being used and try to present a very minimal subset to the customer representative. However, there can be a tendency for the power of the programming language to tempt more technical people to turn the tests into programs in their own right, inevitably losing in expressiveness.
This has led many customer-oriented tools to try and create their own, simpler language for expressing tests in the hope that non-technical people would be able to understand tests written in this and technical types don't get carried away with what they can do. In practice, this is generally misguided. It is very hard to define a 'generic test language' that is suitable and expressive enough for all possible domains, while still keeping it simple enough to be written, modified and read by people with minimal technical knowledge. Such efforts generally grow and grow until they are practically a programming language anyway, with less of the power - in effect the worst of all worlds. These “generic test languages” are referred to as “tool-defined languages” on this site, others have used the term “vendorscripts”.
Our preferred format: Domain Languages
Domain experts have their own language. With the advent of domain-driven design, there is a growing realisation of the importance of developers becoming immersed in this language so that it becomes 'ubiquitous', so that anyone on the team can converse freely in it. An obvious implication, then, is that acceptance tests should be written in this language, or at least in an executable subset of it. We are convinced that this will always be the most expressive, if not always the most powerful, form for tests.
In practice this means a test tool defining a “domain meta-languiage” with as little syntax as possible, with the actual terminology (“verbs and nouns”) being filled in entirely from the domain. It is essential to keep this vanishingly simple to avoid falling into the traps above. We have found it useful to support:
  • Statements of the form <verb> [<noun>]
  • Extraction of common groups of statements into separate files, where they can be “called”.
  • If you are mainly concerned with testing a system as it is used by its users, which is the basic aim of our tools, this should be sufficient. There should be no need for conditional logic as each test is a sequence of pre-determined actions. There is no need for loops as the user has no way of auto-repeating an action anyway. If assertion is done via logging, as in our tools, there is no need for pre-defined syntax for that or any concept of variables, which simplifies the language further.
    Naturally, more “artificial” testing, where you are trying to simulate high load or something, can place more demands on what the test should do. We have found it useful to keep the “simulation” tools separate from the test scripts, so that simulation can have the power of a real programming language without loading down the tests with a programming language's syntax.

    Last updated: 05 October 2012